Towel Knowledge

Cotton - Material of towel


According to the length and appearance of the fiber, cotton can be divided into 3 categories: the first fiber is slender (in the range of 2.5 to 6.5 cm (1 to 2.5 ft)), shiny, including excellent quality sea island cotton, Egyptian cotton And Pima cotton and so on. Long-staple cotton is low in production, expensive and expensive, and is mainly used for high-grade gauze and knitwear. The second category includes general medium-length cotton, such as U.S. cotton, with a length of about 1.3-3.3 cm (0.5-1.3 inches). The third category is short-fiber cotton, about 1 to 2.5 centimeters in length (0.375 to 1 inch), used to make cotton blankets and inexpensive fabrics, or blended with other fibers.

Coarse cotton - also known as Asian cotton, native to India. Due to the low yield and short fibers, it is not suitable for machine spinning and has now been eliminated.
Long-staple cotton - also called seaweed, native to South America. High fiber length and high strength are the characteristics, suitable for spinning high count yarns. At present, China only produces in Xinjiang.
Fine cotton - also known as upland cotton, native to Central America, so it is also known as American cotton. The characteristics of wide adaptability, high yield, long fiber and good quality can spin the yarn.
According to the length and appearance of the fiber, cotton can be divided into three categories: The first type of fiber is slender (with a length in the range of 2.5 to 6.5 cm) and is glossy, including sea-island cotton, Egyptian cotton, and pima cotton with excellent quality; Long-staple cotton is low in production, expensive and expensive, and is mainly used for advanced fabrics, cotton yarns and knitwear. The second category consists of generally medium-length cotton (about 1.3 to 3.3 cm in length); the third category is short-fibre cotton (about 1 to 2.5 cm in length) used to make carpets, cotton blankets, and inexpensive fabrics, or Other fiber blends. Cotton is one of the most important crops in the world, with high output and low production costs.
Cotton can be made into a variety of fabrics. Cotton fabrics are resistant to abrasion and can be washed and ironed at high temperatures. The cotton cloth absorbs moisture and dehumidifies quickly and is comfortable to wear.
The main and by-products of cotton have a high value of use, as the previous saying "cotton body is a treasure." It is not only the most important fiber crop, but also an important oil crop. It is also a food crop containing high protein, and it is also a textile, fine chemical raw material and an important strategic material. Therefore, efforts must be made to increase the production of cotton, make comprehensive use of it, increase production value, and increase the income of cotton farmers and meet the needs of various aspects of national economic development.
Another sexual use is for skin care anti-wrinkle cosmetic products.
Cotton is also an important honey plant:
Cotton is divided into three kinds of nectaries: leaf veins, temporal lobes, and flowers. The nectaries of the veins before flowering tend to secrete honey first. The flowering period of cotton in the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River is from late July to early September. The provinces in the middle and lower reaches of the Yellow River are from early July to early August. Turpan in Xinjiang is from mid-July to early September. The flow of honey for about 40 days, Mi Mi thermogenic 35 °C. The general group of Xinjiang cotton production 10 ~ 30kg, up to 150kg. In other cotton areas, frequent application of pesticides during the flowering period has resulted in excessive damage to bees, and the use value of honey sources has been greatly reduced. The group production is generally 10 to 20 kg. Since the 1980s, the cotton area in China has grown rapidly, and some provinces and regions have actively promoted biological control technologies. It has become the main source of honey for the local summer and autumn.
The world's major cotton producing areas
China, the United States, India, Uzbekistan, Egypt, etc. Among them, China's single production is the largest, Uzbekistan is known as the "Platinum State."
Cotton in China
The 9th-century Arabian traveler Suleiman described in his Sulayman Travels that cotton was seen in China and was seen as a “flower” in the garden. "Liang Shu Gao Chang Chuan" records: Its place has "grass, real as a beggar, and silk as fine as silk, named Bai Baizi."
The earliest remnants of cotton textiles found in the Central Plains are a cotton blanket found in a tomb in the Southern Song Dynasty. In the early years of the Yuan Dynasty, the court used cotton cloth as the head of the summer tax (cloth, silk, silk, cotton) and set up a kapok promotion department to collect physical objects from the people. According to records, as many as 100,000 horses per year, it can be seen that cotton cloth has become the main Textile clothing. The Ming Dynasty also levied cotton cotton cloth and published cotton-planting technology books to encourage people to plant cotton. From Song Yingxing's "Heavenly Creations" in the Ming Dynasty, "the cotton fabrics are both soil and soil" and "the loom must have ten rooms." It can be seen that cotton and cotton textiles have spread all over the country.
At the end of the Qing dynasty, China also successively introduced fine varieties of upland cotton from the United States, replacing African cotton and Asian cotton with low quality and low yield. At present, all of China's plantations are land cotton and its varieties.
China's five major commodity cotton bases
Jianghuai Plain, Jianghan Plain, South Xinjiang Cotton Region, Central South Jiangxi Province, North West Plain of Henan Province, and Yangtze River Plain along the Yangtze River
Growing environment
1. Light conditions for growing cotton
Xinjiang cotton is mostly early-middle-maturing, early-maturing and especially early-maturing varieties, and it is not sensitive to the length of light. It is a hi light crop that is suitable for growing under more light conditions. Both the cotton light compensation point and the light saturation point are high. According to measurements, the light compensation point for cotton single leaves is 750 to 1000 lx, and the light saturation point is 7 to 80,000 lx. Under normal circumstances, the suitable range of cotton leaf light intensity is 8000~70000 lx. Under this range, the photosynthetic intensity increases with the increase of light intensity.
2. Cotton's fertility condition
Water is an important component of cotton, and cotton needs to absorb water from the soil. Physiological water requirements for cotton at all stages of growth are: sowing to emergence, 0 to 20 cm soil moisture content of 70 ~ 80% of the field capacity is appropriate; seedling stage, 0 ~ 40 cm soil moisture content in the field of water capacity 60 ~ 70% is appropriate; in the initial budding stage, 0 ~ 60cm soil moisture content is appropriate for 65 ~ 75% of the field water holding capacity; after the budding period, 0 ~ 80cm soil moisture content accounted for field water capacity of 70 ~80% is appropriate, not less than 60~65%; during boll opening period, the relative soil moisture content is maintained at 55 ~ 70%. According to relevant studies, about two-thirds of the water consumed by the cotton field during the entire growth period is transpiration and 1/3 is consumed by evaporation of land.
3. Effect of soil conditions on the growth and development of cotton
Cotton needs water and nutrients for its growth and development. It is mainly obtained from the soil through the root system. The required temperature and air are taken from the soil and the mechanical support of the soil is needed to grow. The physicochemical and biological properties of the cotton field soil, to a large extent, restrict the cotton yield and quality. Soil moisture, nutrients, temperature, air, salinity, and texture all have a great influence on cotton growth.
Planting technology and management
Grasping seedlings to ensure that all seedlings are broadcast is the first link to ensure high yields. The main direction of cultivation for seedling and seedling cultivation is to realize “five seedlings”, namely “early, full, homogeneous, uniform, and strong”. "Early" is the appropriate sowing and early emergence of seedlings; "all" means no shortage of seedlings and ridges to ensure the planned density; "Qi" means that the seedlings of cotton seedlings are neat and consistent; "even" means that cotton seedlings are uniformly distributed; "strong" is cotton. The seedlings grow steadily, and the roots grow rapidly. Eventually, early budding and flowering of cotton are achieved, and early bolling and turning are performed. Sowing should be done on the basis of good fertilization and soil preparation and selection of fine varieties, and do a good job of seed treatment, planting, planting, appropriate sowing, suitable deep sowing, and drought-resistant sowing, and vigorously promote the technology of seed coating. Plastic film cover technology.
First, fertilization and soil preparation
The farmer said that "the soil is the essence, the fertilizer is the strength, and the water is the life." This shows that the importance of fertilizing and cultivating soil before planting cotton is well established. It is generally required that fertilization and soil fertigation be carried out in about 15 days before sowing. Apply 6-8 pounds of organic fertilizer per acre, 100 yuan of compound fertilizer, 2-4 kg of zinc fertilizer, 2 kg of boron fertilizer, plots of verticillium wilt should increase 20-30 kg of potassium sulfate per kilogram of potassium sulfate. Production practice has proved that the increase of potassium fertilizer, the incidence of Verticillium wilt disease was significantly lower than no potassium fertilizer. After fertilization, the land is ploughed in a timely manner, and the landless squatters must be smashed and smashed, and they can be drained immediately after heavy rain. The formation of stagnant water in general low-lying plots can easily lead to the occurrence of Verticillium wilt. In severe cases, it causes the death of cotton wilting; the incidence of flattened plots is lighter. After the site preparation, if there are irrigated conditions, it is necessary to pour water in time to make a good foundation for planting.
Second, use fine varieties
"Science and technology to develop agriculture, improve the first seed", the seed is the most basic means of production, is the first element of cotton production increase. The selection of fine varieties mainly focuses on three points: First, select a good variety suitable for own planting. According to the inspection of planting varieties in our county in recent years, the varieties that are suitable for planting in our county are Xinfeng 66, Lumianyan 28, and Lu. Cotton Research 21, Lu Mianyan 22, Zhongkang 12 and so on. In addition, there are water-contaminated plots, promote the promotion of planting insect-resistant hybrid cotton. Our county is located in the southwestern region of Shandong. The light and heat resources can meet the growth needs of hybrid cotton, and the hybrid cotton can achieve higher yields. It is suitable for my county. The hybrid cotton planted includes Lumian 15 and Lumianyan 30. The second is to choose cotton seeds with a high rate of health, generally Mao Zijianzi rate should be more than 70%, off the cashmere coated seed rate should be more than 80%. In addition, it is advisable to plant fleece-coated light seeds. The seed depilated coating is to remove the short coat on the cotton seed and coat it with a coating agent. The seed coating agent contains insecticides, fungicides, growth regulators and other ingredients. After the coated cotton seeds are sown in the soil, It is possible to form a protective barrier around the seed (3 cm), directly kill the pathogens in the soil and insect pests in the soil, and at the same time be absorbed by the roots and transfer the chemicals to the shoots of the cotton seedlings to kill the major pests and diseases of the cotton seedlings. Period pest control has a good effect, valid for up to 45-55 days, at the same time can promote early emergence, and promote yield increase, generally can be about 2 days early emergence, is conducive to the realization of a seeding seedlings, strong seedlings early hair, cotton seedlings tidy degree High, pre-frost high flower rate, the average increase of 7-10%, at the same time off the velvet coating cotton seed granulation, can be mechanized sowing, sowing seedling sowing, can speed up the sowing schedule, improve the quality of sowing. However, seed sowing must not be performed when the coated seeds are sown, and the remaining seeds must be sown in the ground to prevent poisoning of humans and animals. Third, when buying seed, go to the regular seed store to purchase. We must show that it is necessary to purchase invoices in order to make claims when problems occur.
Third, seed processing
1, drying seeds. Sowing is usually done 15 days before sowing. Sowing seeds can break the dormant state of cotton seeds, effectively kill epidermis species of cotton seedlings, reduce seedling disease, promote seed ripening, enhance seed water absorption and seed coat permeability, increase seed germination rate and germination potential, and promote seed germination. Emergence. Seeds of Maozi seeds should be exposed to sunlight for 3-5 days, and they should be sunk for 5-6 hours per day. Generally, the thickness of sun drying should not exceed 10 cm, and they should be flipped 3-4 times a day to ensure that the sun is thoroughly sun-dried. The fluffed coated seeds should be dried in low light weather conditions for about one day. When drying seeds, special attention should be paid to avoid drying seeds on the slate, concrete floor or plastic film so as to avoid high temperature burns and affect the seed germination rate.
2, soaking. Soaking with warm soup is a traditional method of treating hair seed that has been used in China for a long time. Its main function is to promote seed germination and seedling emergence, especially in the condition of poor soil moisture conditions, which is conducive to realizing complete sowing of seedlings. Seed coating can not be soaked. Experiments by Shandong Agricultural University have shown that warm soaking does not generally have the effect of reducing disease at seedling stage. On the contrary, if the soaking time is too long, resulting in excessive outflow of nutrients from the seed, it may aggravate the occurrence of disease at the seedling stage. Therefore, the key to soaking is to grasp the seed water absorption should not be too much, generally to reach the seeds themselves 60% -70% of the weight of air dry, seed coat soft, cotyledon stratification is appropriate. The length of soaking time, depending on the water temperature, 18 ~ 20 °C conditions, soaking seeds for 12-16 hours, remove and control dry seed dressing. Do not need to emphasize soaking in warm soup. Do not advocate germination.
3, drug seed dressing. The chemical seed dressing can kill the bacteria that the seeds carry and the germs in the surrounding soil after sowing, so as to increase the emergence rate, prevent and treat diseases at the seedling stage, and use seed dressing with pesticides, which can also reduce the harm of seedling and insect pests. Seed dressing agents contain a certain amount of fungicides, insecticides, and appropriate amounts of plant growth regulators. Commonly used agents and treatment methods are as follows: 20 kg of dry cotton seed with 50% carbendazim WP 50 g plus 50% thiram WP 30 g seed dressing; or 40% seed dressing double WP 125 g Seed dressing.
Fourth, enough to sow
Due to the germination of cotton seedlings, moisture, temperature and oxygen conditions are required, especially moisture. In winter, there are few rain and snow in the cotton area of our county. Soil moisture is the limiting factor that affects the emergence of seedlings all year round. Therefore, if there are irrigated conditions, they must be cultivated in time before sowing. Generally, it is necessary to conduct irrigation no later than 15 days before sowing, in order to ensure that the ground temperature rises in time and does not affect sowing. In case of water-free pouring, the water seed should be soaked with drought-resistant seeding methods or covered with plastic film.
Fifth, suitable for sowing
Temperature is an important basis for determining the sowing date. Generally, when the temperature is stable at 5°C for 5 days and 14°C is passed, it is the time of sowing of cotton. According to China's climatic conditions, the appropriate sowing date for cotton is in mid-April. However, in recent years due to the impact of the cold weather, there are often rainy weather during this period, low temperature and wet soil, often causing heavy cotton seedling disease, severe dead seedlings, is not conducive to preservation of seedlings. Generally considered from the frost period, master the "cold tail warmer" when sowing. In recent years, with the intensification of the greenhouse effect, the frost-free period has lengthened, and the general frost-reduction period has been postponed to early November. Therefore, it can be broadcast several days late to help preserve the seedlings.
Six, appropriate sowing
It should be based on the sowing method, the germination rate, the density of seedlings, and the soil moisture status. Drilling, seedlings need 10-12 pounds per acre. On-demand or sowing, hair seed 3 to 5 tablets per hole, seeds need to be 5-7 pounds per acre; off the cashmere coating seeds per hole 2-3 tablets, seeds need 3-4 pounds per acre. The seeding rate should not be too large. Otherwise, it will not only waste the seeds, but also cause the formation of high and weak seedlings after emergence. The disease will be heavy.
VII. Appropriate broadcast depth
General broadcast depth of 3-4 cm is appropriate. After sowing, cover the soil and suppress it properly.
VIII. Drought resistance
Dongping County is generally drought-prone in the spring, and cotton fields without stumbling conditions are subject to drought-resistance sowing methods are generally adopted. The technical point is: According to the line spacing requirements to open a shallow ditch, ditch depth of 2.5-3 cm; even water, the amount of water to pick in the end is appropriate; after infiltration, according to the spacing requirements of sowing; then cover the soil from the ridge, to wet soil in the next, Dry soil on the ground, and moderate suppression, ridge height 3-5 cm, ridge width 10-13 cm; when 70% cottonseed roots, promptly break the ridge to cover the soil, once the urn flat.
9. Film Covering
The slow rise of temperature in spring and unstable temperature are important factors that limit the total seedlings and early growth of cotton. The mulching film has the functions of heat preservation and warming, and at the same time it has the function of keeping maggots and lifting hoe. It can ensure that the whole seedlings and strong seedlings of cotton are sown early. Films covered with cotton can be classified according to the procedure of sowing and covering and can be divided into first sowing after covering and sowing after sowing. Generally used to cover after the first sowing, when covering the film, the film should be in close contact with the ground, the film edge should be pressed vertically into the groove as far as possible, into the soil depth of not less than 5 cm, while film pressure on the film after soiling, generally every 3 - 5 meters pressure a pile of wet soil, to prevent the wind blows the mulch, or turbulence up and down the film to hurt the cotton seedlings.

Cotton red rot
Symptoms: Before cotton seedlings are unearthed. The young buds turn brown and rot to death; the seedlings are affected, the base of the young shoots and the roots of the young stem become swollen and become yellow-brown at first, resulting in short tan lesions or brown rot of the whole roots.
Control methods: In the rainy season at the seedling stage, when the root disease of cotton seedlings begins, timely use 40% carbendazim glue suspension, 65% zein zinc WP or 50% retort special wettable powder 500-800 times liquid , 25% carbendazim or 30% pod wettable powder 500-800 times, 25% carbendazim or 30% pod wettable powder 500 times, 70% thiophanate or 15% triadimefon may Wet powder 800-1000 times spray, spray 1 time every other week, spray a total of 2-3 times.
Verticillium wilt
Symptoms: The budding stage disease symptoms are leaf shrinkage, dark green leaves, thick and crisp leaves, shortened internodes, curved stems, short deformed plants, and some diseased plants show yellow mesh in the middle and lower leaves. Some diseased plants have all fallen off into light stalks.
Control methods: In mild diseased fields and sporadic disease fields, 12.5% of Weiweiling liquid agent was used to treat 200-250 times of liquids. After primary disease and peak incidence, each disease was treated with 50-100 ml.
Cotton pink disease
Symptoms: The whole shell of the shell is loose and fluffy and orange-like, thicker than that of the red rot. The diseased bell can't crack, and there are red mouldy powder on the stale valve.
Control methods: Can be sprayed with 50% carbendazim, 70% thiophanate, 75% chlorothalonil or 65% zein zinc and other wettable powder 500-1000 times liquid.
Cotton anthrax
Symptoms: Damage to cottonseeds and buds, browning and rot; Cotton seedlings are injured. The base of young shoots begins with a reddish-brown spot and gradually develops a reddish-brown, fusiform lesion. When the disease is severe, the spots surround the base or roots of the stem, showing dark brown wetness. Decomposed, cotton seedlings withered and died. Cotyledon damage, brown semicircular lesions on the leaf margins, purplish red spots.
Control methods: In the rainy season at the seedling stage, when the root disease of cotton seedlings begins, timely use 40% carbendazim glue suspension, 65% zein zinc WP or 50% retort special wettable powder 500-800 times liquid , 25% carbendazim or 30% pod wettable powder 500-800 times, 25% carbendazim or 30% pod wettable powder 500 times, 70% thiophanate or 15% triadimefon may Wet powder 800-1000 times spray, spray 1 time every other week, spray a total of 2-3 times.
Cotton wilt
Symptoms: The diseased plants generally do not dwarf. Most of the diseased plants first develop diseased conditions in the lower leaves, and develop upwards. Irregular pale yellow or mauve patches occur between the leaves of the diseased leaves and the leaf veins.
The law of occurrence: onset and temperature and humidity, and blight generally begin to show symptoms when the soil temperature is around 20°C. When the soil temperature rises to 25°C-28°C, the incidence peaks. When the soil temperature rises above 33°C, the bacteria is inhibited. Temporary hidden symptoms, after the fall of the soil temperature to be about 25 °C, there is a second peak incidence.
Prevention and control methods In mild disease fields and sporadic disease fields, 12.5% of the treatment wilting liquid solution 200-250 times liquid was used. After the initial onset and peaks were found once, each diseased root was irrigated 50-100 ml.
Cotton blight
Symptoms: Cottonseed suffers, causing seed and rotten shoots; seedling stem base is victimized and appears yellow-brown. Water stains lesions, and gradually expand around the tender stems, the disease Department shrinkage, dark brown, wet rot, diseased seedlings fell dead. Cotyledon victims, more irregular brown-brown lesions in the middle, easy to break off into perforation.
Control methods: In the rainy season at the seedling stage, when the root disease of cotton seedlings begins, timely use 40% carbendazim glue suspension, 65% zein zinc WP or 50% retort special wettable powder 500-800 times liquid , 25% carbendazim or 30% pod wettable powder 500-800 times, 25% carbendazim or 30% pod wettable powder 500 times, 70% thiophanate or 15% triadimefon may Wet powder 800-1000 times spray, spray 1 time every other week, spray a total of 2-3 times.
Aspergillus niger
Symptoms A yellow-green or brownish layer of powdery mildew is formed at the cracks and wormholes of the shell, and a villous brown layer of mildew is present at high humidity. The cotton wool is also mildewed and the bell is not cracked.
Occurrence pattern: Occurs under high temperature and humidity conditions. The rainfall in August and September will be the key factor in the severity of the disease.
Control methods: Can be sprayed with 50% carbendazim, 70% thiophanate, 75% chlorothalonil or 65% zein zinc and other wettable powder 500-1000 times liquid.
Cotton angular spot
Symptoms: The onset of true leaves begins with a brownish brown spot and gradually enlarges into a spotty, oily, transparent spot. Later, it becomes a dark brown spot that expands into a polygonal shape due to vein limitation.
The law of occurrence: Soil water content at the seedling stage is relatively high. In July and August, the rainfall during the bell stage is relatively large. In particular, when the storm strikes, Kokyo disease becomes popular.
Control methods: Spray 1:1:120-220 Bordeaux mixture, 25% Metitol wettable powder, or 65% zein zinc wettable powder 400-500 times in the initial stage of disease.
Cotton Scab
Symptoms: The victim suffers from full bolls, and the bell shell becomes black and stiff without cracking. There is a small dark spot on the shell. The whole bell was full of smoked coal powder under high humidity. Illness cotton wool hydrocarbon black stale valve.
Control methods: In the cotton area where the disease is more complicated, 50% carbendazim, 70% thiophanate, 75% chlorothalonil, or 65% zeocin can be sprayed 500-1000 times; Effect, Bordeaux mixture or copper soap can be added by mixing the above agents.
Cotton futures market

(I) Growth Characteristics of Cotton Native to tropical and subtropical regions, cotton is a perennial, short-day crop. After a long period of manual selection and cultivation, it gradually moved northward into temperate zones and evolved into annual crops. Seeding in the spring (or early summer), budding, flowering, and fruiting in the year, complete the birth cycle, and the end of life when the winter cold begins. Cotton is fond of heat, light, drought, and boiled stains. It is suitable for planting in loose and deep soil. As long as it has sufficient temperature, light, water and fertilizer conditions, it is like perennial plants and can be continuously grown. Long branches, long leaves, buds, blossoms, and bells, continue to grow, have unlimited growth and strong regeneration. During the lifetime of cotton, the temperature has a great influence on its growth, production and product quality. In addition to temperature, cotton is very sensitive to light, more resistant to drought, afraid of water. Cotton grows through four seasons of spring, summer, autumn and winter, with 16 springs (from mid-April to mid-November), and can be divided into the sowing period, seedling stage, bud stage and flowering stage. And boll period 5 stages. Compared with other agricultural products, cotton grows longer and is more affected by natural factors.
(B) Classification of Cotton Cotton is Mallow. The cotton is composed of four cultivated cotton varieties, namely Asian cotton, African cotton, upland cotton (also known as fine cotton), and island cotton (also known as long-staple cotton). China is not a cotton country of origin. Cotton seeds are imported from abroad. China's cotton planting has a history of about 2,000 years. But by the end of the 1950s, upland cotton became the main species in China. Followed by long-staple cotton, long-staple cotton fiber is longer and has a certain yield in Xinjiang, China.
(C) the quality of cotton fiber composition Cotton fiber is the seed fiber from the epidermal cells of the fertilized ovule by elongation, thickening, unlike the general bast fiber. Cotton fiber is dominated by cellulose, accounting for 93-95% of the dry weight, and the remainder is a concomitant of fibers. Because of its many economical properties, cotton fibers make it the most important raw material for the textile industry. ? 1, length. At present, the fiber lengths of upland cotton and sea-island cotton varieties produced in major cotton regions in China are mostly 25-31 mm and 33-39 mm, respectively. The length of the cotton fiber refers to the length between the two ends of the fiber, expressed in millimeters. The length of cotton fiber varies greatly. The longest fiber can reach 75 mm, the shortest is only 1 mm. Generally, the length of the fiber of fine cotton is 25-33 mm, and the length of long-staple cotton is more than 33 mm. The cotton fiber lengths of different varieties, different cotton plants, and different cotton bolls are quite different. Even if the cotton bolls of different bolls are in the same position or even in the same sub-position of cotton bolls, the fiber length is also different. In general, the cotton bolls in the lower part of the cotton have shorter fibers, the cotton bolls in the middle are longer, and the fiber length in the upper bolls is between the two; in the same cotton boll, the cotton is born on the cotton in the middle of each lobe. Longer. The length of cotton fiber is one of the most important indicators of fiber quality, and it is closely related to the quality of spinning. When the other qualities are the same, the longer the fiber, the higher the spinning count. The calculation of the number of counts is based on the condition of a fixed moisture regain (8.5%). When the length of each kilogram of cotton yarn is several meters, it is a number of public branches. The finer the yarn, the higher the number of counts. The higher the number of spinning counts, the smaller the number of spinnable yarns and the greater the strength.
2, the length of the uniform. The effect of fiber length on yarn quality is also affected by its uniformity. Generally, the more uniform the fibers, the lower the content of short fibers, and the smoother the yarn surface, the higher the yarn strength. 3, fiber fineness. The fiber fineness is closely related to the strength of the yarn. When the same coarse yarn is spun and the finer fine fiber is used, the number of fiber contained in the yarn is large, the contact surface between the fibers is large, and the cohesion is tight. Yarn strength is high. At the same time, fine fibers are also suitable for spinning smaller yarn counts. However, fineness is not as fine as possible. Fine fibers are easily broken during processing, and neps are easily generated.
4, fiber strength. Refers to the maximum load that a fiber or bundle of fiber can withstand when it is about to break. It is usually expressed in grams or grams per milligram or pound per milligram. The strength of a single fiber varies depending on the species or variety. Between 3.5-5.0 grams, the long-staple cotton fiber structure is compact and the strength can reach 4.5-6.0 grams. 5, fiber maturity. Cotton fiber maturation refers to the degree of fiber cell wall thickening, the thicker the cell wall, the higher its maturity, the more the fiber turns, the higher strength, the stronger elasticity, the better the color, the higher the relative yarn quality; the less mature fiber All economic traits are poor, but over-ripened fiber is not ideal, the fiber is too thick, and the number of twists is also small, but the yarn strength is not high. (D) cotton classification, processing and testing 1, classification. According to the different physical forms of cotton, it is divided into seed cotton and lint. The cotton that the cotton farmer removes from the cotton tree is called seed cotton, and the seed cotton is called lint after de-seeding. The cotton output usually refers to the lint yield. According to the different processing machinery, cotton is divided into sawtooth cotton and roller cotton. The lint processed by the saw-tooth ginner is called saw-tooth cotton; the lint processed by the ginner is called the roller-cotton. Rollerroll cotton has low production efficiency, and the processed cotton has high impurity content, but it has no damage to the cotton fiber and the fiber is relatively long. The lint mill has a low impurity content and high work efficiency, but it has certain damage to the cotton fiber. At present, the fine cashmere cotton is basically sawtooth cotton, and the long cashmere cotton is generally a roller cotton. 2, processing. Generally used to express the proportion of seed cotton into cotton lint, normal years, the clothing is divided into 36-40, which is 100 kg of seed cotton can process 36-40 kg lint. Linoleum can not be distributed, must be labeled as a bale that meets national standards by the baler. China's standard lint packaging has two types of bags: 85 kg/bag (±5 kg) and 200 kg/bag (±10 kg), but the majority is 85 kg.
3, inspection. China's cotton quality inspection is conducted in accordance with national standards GB1103-1999. According to the maturity of cotton, color characteristics, the quality of the three conditions of the cotton into cotton to be divided into 1 to 7 and the other cotton. According to the length of the cotton fiber is divided into a length class, with a step distance of 1 mm, the cotton fiber is divided into 25-31 mm length of seven. Cotton inspections are sensory and instrumental. As China's cotton inspection instruments are mainly used to test some physical indicators of cotton, such as the strength of cotton fibers, micronaire values, etc., they have not yet fully conformed to China's national conditions of cotton grading instruments. Therefore, the national standard stipulates that cotton is rated by sensory inspection as Main and instrument inspections are supplemented. The cotton inspection and arbitration unit is the National Fiber Inspection Bureau (Academy). The import and export inspection of cotton is in the charge of the provincial (municipal) Commodity Inspection Bureau.
(5) Classification of cotton: Cotton classification is an indispensable means for determining the quality of cotton in the process of cotton acquisition, processing, storage and sales, and measuring the use value and market price of cotton. It can fully and rationally use resources to meet production and consumption. need. The cotton grade consists of two parts: one is grade grade, and the other is length grade. 1, grade grade. In general, the cotton grade classification is conducted against the physical standard (standard sample), which is the basis for grading, while assisting with other measures such as hand-pulling, feel to experience the maturity and strength of cotton, see the color characteristics and The quality of the rolling mills is based on the comprehensive conditions of the above indicators for the classification of cotton, the national standard, and the third grade is the grade standard level. 2, length classification. The length is graded using a hand-pulling ruler method. The fiber length is obtained by pulling the fiber to obtain the main length of the cotton (the length of a group of fibers having the highest content in one bundle of fibers). The cotton bundle is measured with a special scale. Each length value is a guaranteed length, that is, 25 mm represents a cotton fiber length of 25.0-25.9 mm, 26 mm represents a cotton fiber length of 26.0-26.9 mm, and so on. At the same time, the national standard also stipulates that 28 mm is the standard for the length; the length of the fifth grade cotton is greater than 27 mm, which is calculated based on 27 mm; the lengths of the grades 6 and 7 are calculated according to 25 mm. Combining grade grade and length grade, cotton can be divided into 33 grades to form a cotton grade sequence. For example, the standard product specified by the national standard is 328, which means that the grade is grade 3 and the length is 28.0-28.9 mm.
Cotton Number One
Trading unit 5 tons/hand (public weight)
Quotation Unit Yuan (RMB)/ton
Minimum change price 5 yuan/ton
The maximum daily price fluctuation limit does not exceed the last trading day settlement price ± 4%
Contract delivery month 1,3,4,5,6,7,8,9,10,11,12 month
Trading Hours Monday to Friday Morning: 9:00-11:30 (excluding official holidays) Afternoon: 1:30-3:00
Last trading day The 10th trading day of the contract delivery month
Last delivery day The 12th trading day of the contract delivery month
Delivery grade reference delivery products: 328B domestic serrated fluffy white cotton (in line with GB1103-1999) alternatives and premiums, see the exchange delivery details
Delivery location Exchange designated delivery warehouse
Minimum transaction margin 7% of contract value
Delivery method Physical delivery
Transaction code CS
Listed Exchange Zhengzhou Commodity Exchange
Cotton Fun Facts

1. Blue jeans are made from cotton. The term denim comes from French, serge de Nimes, or “cloth from Nimes,” a French town that is known for its rich fabrics.
2. Corduroy also belongs to cotton. This word also originated in French and was roughly translated as the king of the ropes.
3. The most expensive jeans can be purchased for $10,000 at Escada. This pair of jeans is inlaid with Swarovski crystals.
4. One of the most expensive jeans ever sold was from Levi’s. Ebay was photographed more than 60,000 US dollars, but the buyer is Levi Strauss company itself.
5. In the 18th century, British women were forbidden to wear pure cotton fabrics because pure cotton was considered to be pornographic.
6. Elvis' cotton underwear was also valued at $1,300.
7. If all U.S. cotton is used only for jeans, the total output will exceed 5 billion.
8. A bundle of cotton can produce nearly 1,217 T-shirts or 313,600 hundred-dollar bills.
9. A baseball can use 150 yards of cotton.
10. 75% of American banknotes are drawn from cotton.
11. Cotton is also a food crop. About 200 million gallons of cotton seed oil is used every year to produce foods such as French fries, butter and salad dressings. As a product, cotton is also a raw material for making toothpaste and ice cream.
12. Each cotton boll contains about 500,000 fibers.
13. Cotton paper was used to help the United States preserve three types of documents: the Declaration of Independence, the Freedom of Rights Act, and the Constitution.


Contact: Han Feng Wei

Phone: 13582381513

Tel: 0312-6615783